Lychnos: Årsbok för idé- och lärdomshistoria <p><em>Lychnos: Årsbok för idé- och lärdomshistoria </em>har sedan 1936 publicerat idéhistorisk forskning och ämnesrelevanta recensioner på de skandinaviska språken och engelska.</p> Lärdomshistoriska samfundet sv-SE Lychnos: Årsbok för idé- och lärdomshistoria 0076-1648 Filosofin som demokratins tjänarinna <p>The article examines how, in the early years of the post-war period, the Norwegian philosopher Arne Næss (1912–2009) set about to reform the so-called Examen Philosophicum degree at the University of Oslo, based on the experiences he and his circle of students underwent during World War II and under the Nazi German occupation of Norway from 1940 to 1945. (Examen Philosophicum is a preparatory degree that all Norwegian university students still today have to complete before going on to further study in their subject). Næss’s hope was that thanks to his reform, future students would be less likely to fall prey to authoritarian and anti-democratic teachings. The argument is developed that Næss’s reform proposals were, for him, a way to process the cultural trauma of the war and occupation for Norwegian society. They, and Næss’s educational ideas more broadly, are contrasted with the ideas of the Christian and conservative thinkers in the so-called Annen front (Second Front) group who looked to the heritage of the Western antiquity and Christianity as the means for dealing with the trauma of the war and the occupation. In conclusion, some parallels are drawn to how, at around the same time, the Danish philosopher Jørgen Jørgensen (1894–1969) approached the problem in post-occupation Denmark, engaging prominently in the country’s so-called Democracy Debate of 1945–1946. The article takes its theoretical point of departure in Jeffrey Alexander’s work on cultural trauma.</p> Henrik Lundberg Copyright (c) 2019 Författaren & Lychnos 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 Om ateismens rörelse genom lokal organisering. Fallet Göteborg <p>The field of the history of atheism, secularism, and humanism is growing. Much research studies canonized thinkers assuming a linear diffusion of their ideas. Such studies however must be complemented with a contextual investigation of the broader circulation of atheism. Methodologically, one way of doing this is focusing atheist organizations. In this article, I attempt doing this, through a study of a local case, namely atheist organizations in the city of Gothenburg during the twentieth century. The historical study of atheism in Sweden is a small field, and this specific topic and material have so far not been studied. The primary purpose of the article is thus to descriptively map this activity, but by doing this, I also aim to discuss the question of whether atheism should be seen as a unitary or plural phenomenon. I ask which atheist organizations have existed, what similarities and differences there have been between them, and in what way the local context has played a role for them. I have identified four organizations: <em>Svenska Fritänkareförbundet</em>, and <em>Ateistisk Organisation</em>, both founded in Gothenburg, and local chapters of the national organizations <em>Förbundet för Religionsfrihet</em>, and <em>Humanisterna</em>. While they have similarities in working for reforms for increased freedom of religion, they show large dissimilarities in political orientation, in the amount and rhetoric of their critique of religion, and to some extent in their activities. Following this, I side with those stressing the plurality of atheism. There are no connections between the organizations, and thus no local tradition as such; there is no specific “Gothenburg atheism”. However, focusing a local case is a fruitful way of studying the wider phenomenon of organized atheism.</p> Anton Jansson Copyright (c) 2019 Författaren & Lychnos 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 Introduction: Subtle flows <p>-</p> Hjalmar Fors Silvia Waisse Pontifical Copyright (c) 2019 The author & Lychnos 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) as medicine in New Spain and Europe, 1500s–1600s <p>The Olmec, Maya and Mexica were familiar with the properties of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) which they used as the main ingredient of beverages served to elites. Following the arrival of the Spaniards, cacao became gradually popular in New Spain. Initially prepared in the traditional way and keeping most of the ingredients used by natives, it eventually came to include also others which came from Europe. At the end of the 1500s, cacao travelled across the Atlantic together with its medicinal connotations, being mostly enjoyed by the upper classes. Scientific studies began to be conducted soon after in Spain, France and England, leading to the earliest publications about chocolate and its properties. From that time onwards, cacao earned a place in the medical literature of the ‘Old’ and the ‘New’ Worlds, being perceived as an important healing means able to restore the physical balance and general health of the sick. While cacao was included in therapeutic preparations all along the colonial period, it lost most of its cultural and magical connotations over time; from the 1800s onwards it came to be mainly seen as a sweet treat</p> Liliana Schifter Copyright (c) 2019 Författaren & Lychnos 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 Contextualising the “American race” in the Atlantic <p>This paper addresses the place of the Bavarian scholar Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1794–1868) within the complex process of development of a ‘natural history of man’ in the nineteenth century. Martius’ understanding of natural history primarily focused on the notion of ‘American race’, i.e. one of the four or five races described by J.F. Blumenbach and C. Linnaeus. In this paper, I elucidate the geopolitical and intellectual coordinates which circumscribed Martius’ thought. I call the attention to the influence of the so-called German ‘Romantic science,’ as well as to Iberian sources which played a crucial role in Martius’ construction of the notion of the ‘American man.’ Martius’ travel narratives created grounds for a transatlantic natural history, in which the unit of analysis is the South Atlantic Ocean and involves a complex and archaic consortium of monarchs. This geopolitical alignment was circumscribed by religious, economic, and scientific ties which connected several nation-states and empires, including Austria, Bavaria, Brazil and Portugal.</p> Raphael Uchôa Copyright (c) 2019 Författaren & Lychnos 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 Transit of knowledge and de-centred science <p>Ernst Georg Åberg (1823–1906) was a Swedish physician who, after falling ill of tuberculosis, moved to Argentina in 1855, where he obtained the revalidation of his medical degree. In subsequent years, he integrated into Buenos Aires society, and was appointed to a number of important positions before travelling back to Sweden. In 1884, Åberg founded in Buenos Aires the Therapeutic Institute of Mechanical Gymnastics or Kinesiotherapy Institute, following the principles of the mechanical gymnastics developed by the Swedish author Gustav Zander (1835–1920) and innovative by virtue of its application of gymnastics machines to therapeutic purposes. That same year he published <em>Zander’s Mechanotherapy</em>, which is considered the first publication on the therapeutic virtues of exercise in the Americas. His work made Argentina one of the pioneering countries in the training of physical therapists in the region. The aim of this paper is to explore the role Åberg played in the implementation of the Swedish science of movement, gymnastics, and physical treatment as an innovative therapeutic option, and also to explore a model of circulation of knowledge between two ‘de-centred countries,’ Sweden and Argentina, at the end of nineteenth century.</p> Jaime E. Bortz Copyright (c) 2019 Författaren & Lychnos 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 Mobilising skill and making skill mobile <p>Between 11 March and 15 April 15 1950, the Swedish thoracic surgeon professor Clarence Crafoord and a team of assistants travelled to Argentina and Brazil to demonstrate surgical procedures. The trip was arranged by the visiting Argentinian surgeon Dr Rafael Alascio, and was financed by the government of Argentina, which in relation to this trip ordered surgical equipment from Sweden. Crafoord was invited to describe and explain how some technologies could be used in surgery, and also to exhibit his renowned skills in the operating theatre to selected audiences. While still in South America, the group decided to visit also Rio de Janeiro, and to conduct surgery and deliver lectures in Brazil. This was the first of four tours to South America by Crafoord and his team. In this paper I revisit the first trip as an endeavour to mobilise skill and to make skill mobile.</p> Daniel Normark Copyright (c) 2019 Författaren & Lychnos 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 The English hunger for desolate places <p>From 1967 to 1969, upon invitation by the Central Brazil Foundation, an ad hoc expedition from the Royal Society and the Royal Geographical Society, known as the Mato Grosso Expedition, took place in Brazil. The research then conducted was aligned to the Brazilian military government’s plans to occupy and develop the area known as Central Brazil. Documents relative to the Mato Grosso Expedition indicate a resumption of post-colonial practices, as well as a shift from so-called ‘pure science’ towards applied science, in accordance with Brazilian developmentalism views. Analysis also shows that the British model for surveying unexplored territories was maintained, together with its consequences for science.</p> Carlos Haag Copyright (c) 2019 Författaren & Lychnos 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 Homeopathy in Sweden and Brazil, 1880–1930 <p>In this paper on the comparative history of homeopathy in Sweden and Brazil, we approach the early decades of the twentieth century, which might be characterised as a ‘golden age’ for homeopathy in both countries. However, contexts and determinants were dramatically different, resulting in radically different implications. In Brazil, homeopathy was granted official governmental recognition, being consequently restricted to academically trained physicians, while all forms of lay healing were legally banned. In Sweden, homeopathy never achieved any formal institutional status, but eventually came to be permitted to lay healers, who earned the right to practice through a <em>Riksdagen</em> bill. Besides the commonplace discussions on the scientific (or not) basis of homeopathy, many other factors—the grounds underlying national health systems, in particular—have equal, if not greater, weight on the attitude vis-á´à-vis non-mainstream medical approaches.</p> Silvia Waisse Motzi Eklöf Copyright (c) 2019 Författaren & Lychnos 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 Coffee—riches and sorrows <p>Coffee became one of the main sources of wealth in Brazil, the state of São Paulo in particular, from the second half of the nineteenth century onwards. However, several problems threatened production, including diseases—mainly infectious—which decimated the workforce, and devastated agricultural pests. In the present study we argue that these factors were some of the triggers for the development of science and technology in Brazil. The local investigators made thorough use of innovations developed abroad, and also sought to create local conditions to overcome scientific and technological challenges. In some relevant cases they contributed to global efforts to eradicate epidemics and pests, and thus to the emergent microbiology and entomology. The case of the coffee industry in São Paulo clearly illustrates aspects of the global-local integration of science, technology and innovation, and of the dynamics of the transit of knowledge.</p> Cristiana Loureiro de Mendonça Couto Ana Maria Alfonso-Goldfarb Copyright (c) 2019 Författaren & Lychnos 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 Miscellanea <p>Ingemar Oscarsson,<em> Filosofen i burspråket. Kring traditionen rörande Descartes sista bostad</em></p> <p>Göran Sonesson, <em>Three visits to the earthly city of the Enlightenment philosophers</em></p> * * Copyright (c) 2019 Författaren & Lychnos 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 Samtliga avhandlingsrecensioner <p>Annelie Drakman: <em>När kroppen slöt sig och blev fast. Varför åderlåtning, miasmateori och klimatmedicin övergavs vid 1800-talets mitt</em> (Anne Kveim Lie)</p> <p>Johan Gärdebo: <em>Environing technology. Swedish satellite remote sensing in the making of environment, 1969–2001</em> (Edward Jones-Imhotep)</p> <p>Chris Haffenden: <em>Every man his own monument. Self-monumentalizing in Romantic Britain</em> (Samantha Matthews)</p> <p>Petter Hellström: <em>Trees of knowledge. Science and the shape of genealogy</em> (John Tresch)</p> <p>Jimmy Jönsson: <em>Den biologiska vändningen. Biologi och skogsvård 1900–1940</em> (Erland Mårald)</p> <p>Synne Myrebøe: <em>Kultiveringens politik. Martha Nussbaum, antiken och filosofins praktik</em> (Victoria Fareld)</p> <p>Valgerður Pálmadóttir: <em>Perplexities of the personal and the political. How women’s liberation became women’s human rights</em> (Clare Hemmings)</p> <p>Tomas Wedin: <em>The aporia of equality. A historico-political approach to Swedish educational politics 1946–2000</em> (Anders Burman)</p> * * Copyright (c) 2019 Författaren & Lychnos 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 Samtliga bokrecensioner <p>Ronny Ambjörnsson &amp; Mohammad Fazlhashemi:<em> Visdomens hus. Muslimska idévärldar 600–2000</em> (Pernilla Myrne)</p> <p>Mats Andrén, Thomas Lindkvist, Ingmar Söhrman &amp; Katharina Vajta (red.): <em>Cultural borders of Europe. Narratives, concepts and practices in the present and the past</em> (Rebecka Lettevall)</p> <p>Annika Berg: <em>De samhällsbesvärliga. Förhandlingar om psykopati och kverulans i 1930- och 40-talens Sverige</em> (Jan Eric Olsén)</p> <p>Björn Billing: <em>Utsikt från en bergstopp. Jean-Jacques Rousseau och naturen</em> (Alfred Sjödin)</p> <p>Anders Burman &amp; Lena Lennerhed (red.): <em>Samtider. Perspektiv på 2000-talets idéhistoria</em> (Henrik Brissman)</p> <p>Lærke Maria Andersen Funder, Troels Myrup Kristensen &amp; Vinnie Nørskov: <em>Classical heritage and European identities. The imagined geographies of Danish classicism</em> (Matthew Norris)</p> <p>Hanna Hodacs, Kenneth Nyberg &amp; Stéphane van Damme (red.):<em> Linnaeus, natural history and the circulation of knowledge</em> (Gunnar Broberg)</p> <p>Kurt Johannesson &amp; Hans Helander: <em>Johannes Magnus– Goternas och svearnas historia</em> (Astrid Nilsson)</p> <p>Peter Josephson &amp; Thomas Karlsohn (red.): <em>Universitetets gränser</em> (Anton Jansson)</p> <p>Johan Kärnfelt, Karl Grandin &amp; Solveig Jülich (red.): <em>Kunskap i rörelse. Kungl. Vetenskapsakademien och skapandet av det moderna samhället</em> (Jacob Orrje)</p> <p>Dominick LaCapra: <em>Understanding others. Peoples, animals, pasts</em> (Bruno Hamnell)</p> <p>Julius Lagerheim: <em>Minnen från mitt vistande i Afrika. Marocko 1831 och 1832</em> (David Dunér)</p> <p>Lena Lennerhed: <em>Kvinnotrubbel. Abort i Sverige 1938–1974</em> (Valgerður Pálmadóttir)</p> <p>Bo Lindberg:<em> Den akademiska läxan. Om föreläsningens historia</em> (Svante Nordin)</p> <p>Carl von Linné: <em>Miracula insectorum</em> (David Dunér)</p> <p>Anders Lundgren: <em>Kunskap och kemisk industri i 1800-talets Sverige</em> (Ingemar Pettersson)</p> <p>Leos Müller: <em>Sveriges första globala århundrade. En 1700-talshistoria</em> (Joachim Östlund)</p> <p>Erland Mårald, Camilla Sandström &amp; Annika Nordin m.fl.: <em>Forest governance and management across time. Developing a new forest social contract</em> (Jimmy Jönsson)</p> <p>Christer Nordlund: <em>Vetandets världar. Texter om vetenskap, kultur och historia</em> (Thomas Kaiserfeld)</p> <p>Heike I. Petermann, Peter S. Harper &amp; Susanne Doetz (red.): <em>History of human genetics. Aspects of its development and global perspectives</em> (Christer Nordlund)</p> <p>Jan Romgard:<em> Polarforskaren som strandade i Kina. Johan Gunnar Andersson &amp; de svenska Asienexpeditionerna</em> (David Dunér)</p> <p>Hans Ruin: <em>Being with the dead. Burial, ancestral politics, and the roots of historical consciousness</em> (Mårten Björk)</p> * * Copyright (c) 2019 Författaren & Lychnos 2020-01-01 2020-01-01